Sholing, Bitterne, Hampshire
There appears to be no mention of Sholing in the Domesday Book, at least in that form of spelling. However there is an entry for Hound.
Hound was a settlement in Domesday Book, in the hundred of Mansbridge and the county of Hampshire.
It had a recorded population of 23 households in 1086, putting it in the largest 40% of settlements recorded in Domesday (NB: 23 households is an estimate, since multiple places are mentioned in the same entry).
The image is an extract of the Domesday Book, fortunately transcribed for us.
Land of Hugh of Port
Households: 31 villagers. 9 smallholders. 6 slaves.
Land and resources
Ploughland: 9 ploughlands. 3 lord's plough teams. 6 men's plough teams.
Other resources: Meadow 20 acres. 2 mills, value 1 pound. 1 church.
Annual value to lord: 14 pounds in 1086; 8 pounds when acquired by the 1086 owner; 14 pounds in 1066.
Tenant-in-chief in 1086: Hugh of Port.
Lord in 1086: Hugh of Port.
Overlord in 1066: King Edward.
Lords in 1066: Wulfric; Wulfward.
This entry mentions multiple places: Hound; Warnford.
Phillimore reference: Hampshire 23,18
The map marks the location of Hound from the Domesday Book entry, and the suburb of Sholing in the modern Southampton. Hound is not the nearest dot on the map. Netley and Woolston, also have entries.
Netley was a settlement in Domesday Book, in the hundred of Mansbridge and the county of Hampshire.
It had a recorded population of 13 households in 1086.
Land of Richard Poynant
Households: 9 villagers. 2 smallholders. 2 slaves.
Land and resources
Ploughland: 5 ploughlands. 1 lord's plough teams. 2 men's plough teams.
Other resources: Meadow 4 acres. Woodland 40 swine render. 1 church.
Annual value to lord: 5 pounds in 1086; 2 pounds when acquired by the 1086 owner; 3 pounds in 1066.
Tenant-in-chief in 1086: Richard Poynant.
Lord in 1086: Richard Poynant.
Overlord in 1066: King Edward.
Lord in 1066: Alward.
Phillimore reference: Hampshire 42,1
Woolston was a settlement in Domesday Book, in the hundred of Mansbridge and the county of Hampshire.
It had a recorded population of 6 households in 1086, putting it in the smallest 40% of settlements recorded in Domesday.
Land of Reginald (Cnut)
Households: 3 villagers. 3 smallholders.
Land and resources
Ploughland: 1 men's plough teams.
Annual value to lord: 5 shillings in 1086; 10 shillings in 1066.
Tenant-in-chief in 1086: Reginald (Cnut).
Lord in 1086: Reginald (Cnut).
Overlord in 1066: King Edward.
Lord in 1066: Tovi.
Phillimore reference: Hampshire 59,1
The abbey of Netley, Letley (Lœtus Locus), or Edwardstow (Loci Sancti Edwardi), dedicated to the honour of the Blessed Virgin and St. Edward the Confessor, was founded for Cistercian monks by Henry III. in 1239. It appears that Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester (1205-38), purchased the land of ' Hanseta ' and ' Cedrigia' from William, Bishop of Angers, and the dean and chapter of Angers; lands in Wellow from the abbot of St. Mary de Pratis, Leicester; lands at Kingston Deverel from the bishop and chapter of Le Mans; land called 'Ayhsleg' in Dorsetshire from the abbot of Croix St. Leufroy; and some other parcels of land, apparently with the object of founding this monastery. The bishop, however, died in 1238, before the completion of his object, and the actual foundation was carried out by Henry III. in the following year. Hence the king was usually referred to as the founder. So soon as the monastery was completed it was colonized by monks from the Cistercian abbey of Beaulieu, who arrived at their new home on St. James' Day, 1239.
In August, 1243, Roger de Clare sold to the abbey for 300 marks the tilled land and pasture which lay between their manor of Gomshall and the highway from Guildford to Dorking, and also the advowson of the church of Shere, which grant was confirmed by John de Warren, Earl of Surrey, in 1252.
In 1244 Innocent IV. sanctioned Under certain conditions the appropriation by the abbey of Netley of the churches of Shere and Wellow, valued at £30 per annum. The same pope in the following year confirmed to the abbot and convent of Netley the privileges of not being compelled by bishops or others to attend synods or assemblies outside their order, save only pro fide, and of exemption from sentences of excommunication, suspension or interdict.
In the same year Robert, abbot of Netley, released to the Bishop of Winchester the manor of Esher, with the advowson of the church and all its appurtenances, save 100s. worth of land in Dorsetshire. In August, 1247, the abbot and convent of Lieu Dieu, in the diocese of Amiens, sold to the abbey of Netley for 600 marks their English manor of Nordley, their rents in Oxford, their rents and rights in Chaddleworth and their rent of five marks from the church of Henton.
Henry III. on 7 March, 1251, confirmed to Netley Abbey (Sancte Marie de Loco Sancti Edwardi) the site of the monastery with the lands of Netley, Hound, Wellow, Totton, Gomshall, Nordley, Kingston Deverel, Waldon, Aynsley and Lacton, with rents in Charleton, Southampton and Southwark, a hundred acres in Shere manor and the church there, as well as many liberties and privileges. A fortnight later the king granted to the abbey free warren on their lands in Netley, Hound, Shotteshale, Westbrook and Sholing (Hants), Waddon and Aynsley (Dorset), and Gomshall and Shere (Surrey), a weekly market at Hound on Monday and a two days' fair at Wellow on the vigil and day of St. Margaret. Henry III. continued his benefactions to the abbey, and on 24 July, 1253, granted to it three carucates of land, of 100 acres each, in the New Forest, with licence to enclose and cultivate them; and in 1256 he gave special licence to enclose the same against the king's deer. He also further granted to the abbey a tun of wine yearly out of the prisage at Southampton, to be used for the celebrations in the abbey. Edward I. instructed the taker of the king's wines at Southampton in 1276, 1277 and 1280 to duly supply this wine according to the late king's charter; but in 1281 Edward I. granted 20s. yearly in alms in lieu of the wine, as the prisage at Southampton was assigned to Eleanor, the king's mother, as part of her dower.
... (jumping forward a few centuries)
A royal commission was issued in 1535, which empowered Thomas, abbot of Forde, to visit various Cistercian houses, including Netley and all those of Winchester diocese.
The Valor of 1535 estimated the gross revenue of Netley Abbey at £160 2s. 9½d., whilst the clear income was only £100 12s. 8d.; it therefore came under the heading of the lesser monasteries. Being of exempt jurisdiction, no particulars are given in the return.
On 30 May, 1536, Sir James Worsley and his brother commissioners presented their report on the religious houses of Hampshire. Netley is described as 'A hedde house of Monkes of thordre of Cisteaux, beinge of large buyldinge and situate upon the Ryvage of the Sees. To the Kinge's Subjects and Strangers travelinge the same Sees great Relief and Comforte.' The commissioners estimated its total revenues at £181 2s. 8d. They found there seven monks, all priests, ' by Raporte of good Religious conversation, whereof desieren to Contynne Religiar vj, and to have capacite j.' There were thirty-two other inmates, namely ' ij freeres observantes comytted by the Kinge's highnes,' four waiting servants, four officers of the household, eleven officials of the convent, seven hinds and three ' for the dayery.' The church, mansions and buildings were in good repair. The lead and bells were worth £57; plate and jewels, £43 2s. 11d.; ornaments, £39 4s. 8d.; stuff, £9 3s. 4d.; corn, £10 17s.; stocks and stores, £103 13s. 4d. The woods were worth £81. The debts of the house were £42 3s. 4d., but there was £28 5s. owing to the house.
The abbey of Netley retained most of its early endowments, and at the time of its dissolution the lands belonging to it were, besides the site, the manors of Wellow, Totton, Roydon, Nordley, Gomshall, Kingston Deverel and Hound; and lands and possessions in Southampton, West Setley, Mitcomb Regis, Charleton, Shottishale, Sholinge and Shamelhurst.
On 3 August, 1536, the king gave to Sir William Poulett, the comptroller of his household (two of whose brothers had been the commissioners who reported so favourably of this house in the previous May), the site and buildings of the suppressed abbey, together with the grange, mill and lands in Netley; the manor of Hound; lands and windmill, etc., in Hound and Sholing; the manor of Townhill; lands, etc., in Townhill and Shamelhurst; and the manor of Waddon and the farm of Aisheley in Dorsetshire. The manor of Kingston Deverill (Wilts) was bestowed on Sir Edward Seymour in the following year. The reversion and rent reserved upon a lease granted in 1502 by Abbot John Burges of the manor of Gomshall, Surrey, was given in 1538 to Sir Edward Braye. The tithes of Wellow rectory and land there were granted in 1539 to Sir Richard Lyster, chief baron.
The English Reformation
The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England when the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity in western and central Europe. Causes included the invention of the printing press, increased circulation of the Bible and the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general. The phases of the English Reformation, which also covered Wales and Ireland, were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion gradually accommodated itself.
The break with Rome was affected by a series of Acts of Parliament passed between 1532 and 1534, among them the 1534 Act of Supremacy, which declared that Henry was the "Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England" (this title was renounced by Mary I in 1553 in the process of restoring papal jurisdiction; when Elizabeth I reasserted the royal supremacy in 1559, her title was Supreme Governor). Final authority in doctrinal and legal disputes now rested with the monarch; the papacy was deprived of revenue and the final say on the appointment of bishops.
Another view of the English Reformation
Dissolution of the Monasteries (and Abbeys)
The Reformation in Tudor England was a time of unprecedented change. One of the major outcomes of the Reformation was the destruction of the monasteries which began in 1536.
The Reformation came about when Henry VIII wished to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, who had failed to give him a male heir. When the Pope refused to grant the divorce, Henry set up the Church of England. The Act of Supremacy in 1534 confirmed the break from Rome, declaring Henry to be the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
The monasteries were a reminder of the power of the Catholic Church. It was also true that the monasteries were the wealthiest institutions in the country, and Henry’s lifestyle, along with his wars, had led to a lack of money. Monasteries owned over a quarter of all the cultivated land in England. By destroying the monastic system Henry could acquire all its wealth and property whilst removing its Papist influence.
The idea was not new. Thomas Cromwell had already helped Cardinal Wolsey dissolve monasteries in the past. First of all, a dossier was presented to Parliament outlining the corrupt morals of the clergy. Henry’s chief minister Cromwell then introduced the ‘Valor Ecclesiasticus’ to find out just how much property was owned by the Church. He sent out royal commissioners to all the monasteries in England, Wales and Ireland.
This led to the Act of Suppression in 1536 whereby small monasteries with an income of less than £200 a year were closed and their buildings, land and money taken by the Crown. The Second Suppression Act of 1539 allowed the dissolution of the larger monasteries and religious houses.
Monastic land and buildings were confiscated and sold off to families who sympathised with Henry’s break from Rome. By 1540 monasteries were being dismantled at a rate of fifty a month.
After the disposal of their monastic lands and buildings, the majority of monks, friars and nuns were given money or pensions. However, there were some abbots and religious house leaders who refused to comply. They were executed and their monasteries destroyed. Thousands of monastic servants suddenly found themselves without employment.
A bit circuitous, but it appears that from the initial growth and spread of influence following Netley Abbey's creation, upon the dissolution of the Abbey, Sholing came under the control of Sir William Poulett,
Shortly after the Dissolution of Netley Abbey, we have Saxton's map of Hampshire, 1575. Below is a extract.
Extract from Christopher Saxton Map - Map, hand coloured copper plate engraving, Southamtoniae, ie Hampshire, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, engraved by Leonard Terwoort, Antwerp, Netherlands, published by Christopher Saxton, map maker, London? about 1575
Hound and Netley are shown as well as Bitterne, but Sholing is not on the map yet.
Map, hand coloured copper plate engraving, Hantshire described and divided, Hampshire with part of the Isle of Wight, and a town plan of Winchester, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, engraved by Jodocus Hondius, about 1611. Published in the Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain, 1611.
The administrative districts called Hundreds are shown on this 1611 map. Hound and Netley are in Mansbridge Hundred, which appears to be in three separate sections, whilst Sholing, which would be between Bitterne and Itchen are in Waltham Hundred. Click on the map to go to the larger source map for greater clarity.
These notes are made from a '1 inch to 1 mile' map of Hampshire surveyed by Thomas Milne, published by William Faden, 1791. The item used is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1998.124.
We can rely on Milne's 1791 Map to provide more detail. Hound is shown, as are Netley, Castle, Netley Abbey, Netley Green, Netley Lodge, and Netley. Family seats, or Estates are also shown with the name of the owner. Sydney Farm for instance is annotated The Honourable Mrs Yorke. Sholing, whilst in the vicinity of Sydney Farm, still does not receive a mention.
These notes are made from a 1 inch to 1 mile map of Hampshire surveyed by C and J Greenwood and N L Kentish, published by Greenwood and Pringle and Co, 1826. The item used is in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service, item HMCMS:FA1965.589 - Southampton
Still no Sholing on Greenwood's 1826 version of Hampshire.
Tithe Map of the Parish of Hound near Southampton
The first recognisable part of the Tithe map of the Parish of Hound, Hampshire was Millers Pond, which fortunately was named on the map and the apportionment, circled in blue. It is a different shape however form the same named pond on the later Ordnance Survey 25" Map. I believe that this can be explained. Hover over the map to zoom in. The brown wash area is the Parish of St Mary's Extra. Millers Pond on the map starts to curve upwards, but it enters another parish and the drawing on the pond is not completed. The additional pond north of Millers pond could have been filled in.
Extract of Parish of Hound Tithe Apportionment with Sholing Roads and Commons
There are a number of roads listed in the Parish of Hound Tithe Apportionment in the Tithing of Sholing, Roads and Commons, in particular;
||Part of Itchen Lane and New Turnpike Road
||Turnpike Road to Botley
||Portsmouth Turnpike Road
||New Turnpike Road through Sholing Common
|| New Turnpike Road to Portsmouth
| 109a & b
|| Southampton and Portsmouth Turnpike Road
||Turnpike Road Near Bursledon Bridge
The colour wash refers to the additional colour lines added to the tithe map to indicate the Turnpike Roads crossing the parish. The light green area on the zoom in map, hover over with a mouse, is Sholing Common. Itchen Lane is shown on the route of the New Turnpike Road. Sholing Lane, towards the top left of the map in red wash. The New Turnpike Road is presumably to serve the Itchen Floating Bridge, also shown on the main map.
South Stoneham Registration District
- Registration County : Hampshire.
- Created : 1.7.1837.
- Abolished : 1.4.1927 (to become part of Eastleigh registration district).
- Sub-districts : Millbrook, St. Mary Extra, South Stoneham.
- GRO volumes : VII (1837-51), 2c (1852-1927).
A lot of my close Family History is based around Hampshire, and in particular the South Stoneham Registration District. Records frequently stating South Stoneham, which from the above table by Brett Langston it is evident covers a large area, as well as the village of South Stoneham. Hover over the map of the Parishes of Hampshire to zoom into the parishes around South Stoneham.
Onward to 1840s, and OS Old Series Hampshire 1810 (revised). Southampton has a dock and the railways have arrived. Sholing, circled in red, has arrived on a map.
These notes are made from the first edition, Old Series one inch to one mile maps of Hampshire surveyed by the Ordnance Survey, Tower of London, London, published in the 1810s. The maps used are mostly later editions mostly from the 1840s, and are in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service
Sydney Farm appears to be Sydney House and Ridgeway, Ridgeway Castle, but no owners shown. Botany Bay also makes a appearance, between Sholing Common and Netley Common.
Ordnance Survey Map Southampton (Outline), Sheet 315, Revised: 1893, Published: 1895 - Marker at Sholing
In 1893, it is evident from the one inch map above that Sholing is still predominantly rural and not yet absorbed into a suburb of Southampton. The address would therefore be Sholing, Hampshire, or Sholing, Bitterne, Hampshire, in the registration district of South Stonham.
Hampshire and Isle of Wight LXV.12, Revised: 1895, Published: 1897 - Sholing Common
Change to a 25 inch OS Map and there is more detail to look at. The map seems to indicate that Sholing Common and Sholing Bottom are included the general area of Sholing, together with, potentially, at the very bottom of the map, Botany Bay. Click on the map to investigate further. Middle Road has a gravel colour wash.
Wikipedia also has an article about Sholing