Ivan Hurst's exploration of Genealogy


Tithe Commutation Act 1836


The Tithe Commutation Act 1836

An Act for the Commutation of Tithes in England and Wales. - 6 & 7 Will 4 c 71.  Royal assent; 13 August 1836

Together with several amendments;

Act amended by Tithe Act 1839 (c. 62), Tithe Act 1842 (c. 54), Tithe Act 1860 (c. 93), Tithe Act 1878 (c. 42), Tithe Act 1891 (c. 8) and Tithe Act 1918 (c. 54)

The Tithe Act, 1936 (26 Geo. V and 1 Edw. VIII. C.43) abolished all tithe rent charges. Responsibility for tithe documents created under the tithe acts (1836, 1837, 1839, 1860, 1891) were placed under the charge of the Master of the Rolls, who has the authority to transfer them to an approved place of deposit. This responsibility is exercised by The National Archives: Historical Manuscripts Commission. The Master of the Rolls has issued Tithe (Copies of Instruments of apportionment) Rules 1960 (SI 1960/2440), as amended by the Tithe (Copies of Instruments of Apportionment) (Amendment) Rules 1963 (SI 1963/977)] concerning the care, custody, access to, and definition of tithe documents.

The Census


The Census

Extracted from The National Archives

What is the census and why was it compiled?

The census is a head count of everyone in the country on a given day. A census has been taken in England and Wales, and separately for Scotland, every ten years since 1801, with the exception of 1941.

The object of the census was not to obtain detailed information about individuals, but to provide information about the population as a whole; listing everyone by name, wherever they happened to be on a single night, was the most efficient way to count everybody once, and nobody twice.

How the census was taken and on what dates

In every census year an enumerator delivered a form to each household in the country for them to complete. The heads of household were instructed to give details of everyone who slept in that dwelling on census night, which was always a Sunday. The forms completed by each household, known as schedules, were collected a few days later by the enumerator. From 1841 to 1901 the information from the schedules was then copied into enumeration books. Once the enumeration books had been completed, most household schedules were destroyed, although there are some rare survivals. It is the enumeration books that we consult today online or on microfilm.

The 1841 census was the first to list the names of every individual, which makes it the earliest useful census for family historians. However, less information was collected in 1841 than in later census years. Read section 5 for details of the information recorded in each census year.

The General Register Office was responsible for taking the census, so it used the administrative framework already in place for the registration of births, marriages and deaths. The Superintendent Registrar was responsible for collecting the returns from each Registrar of Births and Deaths in their registration district, and sending them to the Census Office in London. Each Registrar of Births and Deaths was responsible for a sub-district, which they divided into enumeration districts (EDs), and recruited enumerators for each ED.

The dates of the censuses were as follows:

1841 – 6 June
1851 – 30 March
1861 – 7 April
1871 – 2 April
1881 – 3 April
1891 – 5 April
1901 – 31 March
1911 – 2 April
1921 – 19 June

The intended date for the 1921 census was 24 April, but was postponed due to industrial unrest, which the GRO decided would have made it impossible to collect accurate information in some areas.

In the censuses of 1801, 1811, 1821 and 1831 lists of names were not collected centrally, although some are held in local record offices.


Unfortunately, the 1931 census for England and Wales was destroyed by fire in 1942, and no census was taken in 1941 because of the Second World War.

People in the census

The following information on individuals enumerated within households is included in each census year as follows (slightly different questions were asked on schedules for institutions and vessels, depending on the location and census year):


first name and surname
age (rounded down to the nearest five years for those aged 15 or over)
whether they were born in the county where they were enumerated (Y or N)
whether they were born in Scotland (S), Ireland (I) or Foreign Parts (P)

1851 and 1861

first name, middle names (often just initials) and surname
relationship to the head of the household
marital status
age (at last birthday)
rank, profession or occupation
where born – county and parish if born in England or Wales, country only if born outside England and Wales)
whether blind, or deaf and dumb

1871 and 1881

As 1851 and 1861, except for the following difference:

the last column now reads: 1. Blind 2. Deaf and Dumb 3. Imbecile or Idiot 4. Lunatic


As 1871 and 1881 with the following extra details on employment:

whether Employer, Employed, or Neither Employer nor Employed
language spoken (Wales only)


As 1891, with occupation details changed to:

‘Employer, Worker or Own account’
a new column ‘If working at home’
language spoken (Isle of Man only)


As 1901, with extra questions:

For married women only, the number of years of their present marriage, the number of children born of that marriage, the number still living, and the number that had died.
As well as their occupation, the industry in which the person was employed. If employed by a government, municipal or other public body, the name of that body.
Parish and county of birth for anyone born in the UK (which included all of Ireland). If born elsewhere in the British Empire, the colony or dependency, and the state or province.
For anyone born outside England and Wales, whether they were resident or visitor in the country.
Nationality of anyone born overseas whether British by parentage, British by naturalisation (including year of naturalisation) or, if a foreign national, of which country.
In the Infirmity column, the age at which the person had become afflicted.
In 1911 all the household schedules were kept, for the first time (see RG 14), and were not copied into enumeration books. There are instead enumerators’ summary books which list every address, including unoccupied buildings, and the only names they contain are those of the head of each household (see RG 78). These summary books are the only place you will find a description of each building such as ‘House and shop’, ‘Hotel’, ‘Private house’. Unoccupied houses and non-residential properties such as churches and factories are also listed.


Stories of Family in the Great War


Stories of Family in the Great War


I'm not really sure if this should be in People of History category, but it is going to start in History.

It is not a history of the Great War as there are much better accounts than this.

However, when researching individuals and families, sometimes they have Great War stories within the Article.

This is a collection of those Articles. The Articles are in full, not just the relevant part. 

William Henry Pomeroy in uniform



William Henry Pomeroy, born 22nd September 1884

William Henry, born 22nd September 1884 at 20 Torrens Buildings, Torrens Street, Clerkenwell, Islington (if at home). Baptised William Henry on 2nd November 1884 at the Parish Church of St Peter's Clerkenwell.


William Henry Pomeroy

b 22 Sep 1884 20 Torrens Buildings, Torrens Street, Angel, Islington, Middlesex, England

d 5 May 1917 • La Vacquerie, Calvados, Basse-Normandie, France

m 6 Mar 1907 Kingston, Surrey, England, to Kathleen Mary Josephine O'Dowd



19 May 1907      -  John Henry Charles Pomeroy

4 October 1908  -  William Patrick Pomeroy

14 May 1910     -  Edward George Pomeroy

19 May 1912     -  Kathleen Mary Josephine Pomeroy

20 March 1914  -  Albert David Pomeroy



White Cottage, Wellington Road, Teddington, Middlesex

7 Rosedale Avenue, Hayes, Middlesex








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Edward Pomeroy

Edward, born 15th December 1886  at 20 Torrens Buildings, Torrens Street, Angel, Islington (if at home). Baptised Edward on 6th February 1887 at the Parish Church of St Peter's Clerkenwell.

In the 1911 Census Edward was living with his parents Charles and Charlotte Elizabeth Pomeroy at the Prince Albert Pub, in Pield Heath Road, Colham Green, Hillingdon, Uxbridge. Edward, was aged 24, single a Groundsman at the Golf Club.



 Edward Pomeroy

b 15th December 1886  at 20 Torrens Buildings, Torrens Street, Angel, Islington, Middlesex

d 23rd April 1917 Killed in Action, France and Flanders, Near Arras, France.

m quarter 4 of 1911 in Uxbridge Registration District to Florence Davis



Florence Pomeroy 


15th January 1912  -  Charles Edward Pomeroy

4th November 1915  -  Florence Ethel



Ash Cottage, Colham Green, Hillingdon, Middlesex













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Angevin empire



Angevin empire and the Count of Anjou and Duchy of Aquitaine

Pepin or Pippin the Short First King of the Franks of the Carolingian dynasty. First King of the Franks. That is something.

He was also, according to my family tree on Ancestry, my 15th great-grandfather of wife of husband of 3rd cousin 25x removed. Born 715 in Austrasia, France and died 18 September 768 at St Denis, Paris, Ile-de-France, France. 

 Pepin the Short, also called the Younger (German: Pippin der Jüngere, French: Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was King of the Franks from 751 until his death in 768.

Pepin the Short grandfather was Pepin II De Heristal, Mayor Of The Palace. He was born in 635 in Liège, Liege, Belgium. 

Charles The Hammer MartelPepin the Short's father, was Charles Martel.

Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who, as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death. He was a son of the Frankish statesman Pepin of Herstal and Pepin's mistress, a noblewoman named Alpaida. Charles, also known as "The Hammer" (in Old French, Martel), successfully asserted his claims to power as successor to his father as the power behind the throne in Frankish politics. Continuing and building on his father's work, he restored centralized government in Francia and began the series of military campaigns that re-established the Franks as the undisputed masters of all Gaul.


Parish records, early Holy Cross


Parish records, early Holy Cross Book Canterbury

We sometimes think of all the information that is available to us today. Thanks in part to the standardization of recorded information and record books required by past governments. A series of mandates in the sixteenth century required clergy to compile records of baptisms, marriages, and burials within each parish. As the clergy were also obliged to send an annual copy to the bishop (called Bishops Transcripts) there are many parish records from this time.

The following is available thanks to Ancestry and Kent, England, Tyler Index to Parish Registers, 1538-1874. This collection contains 340 books of extractions of baptism, marriages and burials from parish registers in East Kent, compiled by Frank Watt Tyler. The collection is held by the Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies (IHGS) and thereat known as "The Tyler Collection".

Scarlet Fever

Scarlet Fever hits Family

According to 'The Bignells and the Pomeroy's of Broadwindsor',  Charles Pomeroy, born on 9 July 1867 at Church Lane Farnham was {Page 4 note 35} 'The first of a succession of childhood deaths in the family resulting from an epidemic of scarlet fever}. He died at the same place on 11 September 1869. About 14 months old. The information does not explicitly state which Farnham.

William Bailey Pomeroy, b 1864 in Farnham had died a few days earlier on 29 August 1868. A mear fortnight between them, but not specifically mentioned as being Scarlet Fever.


Social economic history